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Phenolic, PIR and ERS
Phenolic insulation materials consist of solids mixed with phenolic resin and a a surface acting agent. The resulting reaction produces a network of bubbles, then the bubbles will be cured into a foam. Predominantly closed cell structure with millions of microscopic, unconnected bubbles. These bubbles effectively contain the blowing agent, which is responsible for forming the foam and keeping it rigid on a long term basis.
Usually, vapour barrier jackets are glued to the phenolic insulation section sand delivery to the jobsite, then the contractor will install insulation according to project need.
The advantages of phenolic insulation:
1) Because it is very low thermal conductivity, it perform very good insulating properties
2) Superior fire resistance with very low flame spread and very low levels of toxic gas emission. Normally rated with an ASTM E84 25/50 Class A flame and smoke rating.
3) The insulation waste can be reused or re-produced to another product.
4) Structural strength.
5) High water resistance
6) Chemical resistance due to its inert and stable nature.
7) High working range temperature.
CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) and HCFC (Hydrochlorofluorocarbon) free are gas which will make global warming.
The disadvantages of phenolic insulation,
1) The major drawback of phenolic is it shrinks up to 2% after curing, which may cause air leakage and heat transfer.
2) Phenolic foam insulation will deteriorate if it is exposed to moisture or sunlight for extended periods of time.
3) Significant amount of petroleum and natural gas must be burnt during the manufacturing and refining processes.
Polyisocyanurate foam insulation, we usually call it PIR or Polyiso. It is type of thermalplastic essentially produced as a foam and it is used as rigid thermal insulation. The starting material is the same as those of Polyurethane, except the proportion of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is higher and a polyester-derived polyol is used in the reaction instead of polyether polyol. It is manufactured from liquid polyisocyanurate foam sandwiched between fiberglass reinforced organic felt, fiberglass mat (inorganic), or foil facers. It is closed cell foam sheet and it contains low conductivity gases in their cells. The reason to its high R-value is due to its high thermal resistance in its cells.
The advantages of polyisocyanurate insulation:
1) Reduces air exfiltration and infiltration, then reduces heat loss.
2) It has highest R-value per inch of any insulation products
3) Absorbs less than 1% of water, far less than any rigid insulation.
4) Relatively strong at 20 Psi.
5) Holds up well and can be re-used.
6) Lightweight and easy to install.
7) Stronger molecular structure resulting in more thermally and chemically stable than PUR.
Higher fire resistance than PUR.
The disadvantages of polyisocyanurate insulation:
1) PIR insulation can be a mechanical irritant to skin, eyes, and upper respiratory system during fabrication.
2) in a range of flaming, non-flaming, and poorly ventilated fires, and concluded that PIR generally released a considerably higher level of toxic products than the other insulating materials studied (PIR > PUR > EPS > PHF; glass and stone wools also studied.
Polystyrene foam board, we usually call EPS, it is one of the common interior wall insulation materials, mainly used for building walls, roof insulation, insulation and other composite panels. EPS is divided into expansion board (Benzene Board) and Continuous Extrusion plate XPS (extruded plate).
The advantages of polystyrene insulation:
1) High Density, good impact resistance, able to change and respond by the shape of the impart force from external environment.
2) Small area of damage will not affect the surface of the entire wall due to its inside bubble structure.
3) Low water absorption, good anti-permeability, to avoid the damp moldy walls effectively.
4) Highest degree of recyclable plastics.
5) The production process does not use freon, one of the global warming substances other than CO2 that contributed to the greenhouse effect.
6) Full life cycle energy consumption of plastics is the lowest.
7) Low thermal conductivity due to the air-filled group structure.
The disadvantages of polystyrene insulation:
1) Long duration construction process.
2) Flammable and emits toxic gas after combustion. Polystyrene board is easy to burn, even adding in flame retardant substance, it can reach B combustibility grade.
3) Prone to crack due to low strength.
4) Limited strength and load-bearing capacity.
5) If it is not cured properly, the quality will get down and it will crack or shrink.
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