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What are the classifications of precision laser cutting?

by:VENTECH     2022-03-16

Precision laser cutting is the use of high-power density laser beam to irradiate the material to be cut, so that the material is quickly heated to vaporization temperature, and evaporates to form holes. As the beam moves on the material, the holes continuously form slits with a narrow width. , Complete the cutting of the material.

Precision laser cutting processing can be divided into four types: laser vaporization cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting and laser scribing and controlled fracture:

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1. Laser vaporization cutting

Using high-energy-density laser beam to heat the workpiece, the temperature rises rapidly, reaching the boiling point of the material in a very short time, and the material starts to vaporize and form vapor . The jetting speed of these vapors is very high, and at the same time as the vapor jets, cuts are formed in the material. The heat of vaporization of materials is generally very large, so a lot of power and power density are required for laser vaporization and cutting.

Laser vaporization cutting is mostly used for cutting extremely thin metal materials and non-metal materials (such as paper, cloth, wood, plastic, rubber, etc.).

2. Laser melting and cutting

When laser melting and cutting, the metal material is melted by laser heating, and then the non-magnetic material is sprayed through the nozzle coaxial with the beam. Oxidizing gases (Ar, He, N, etc.) rely on the strong pressure of the gas to discharge the liquid metal to form an incision. Laser melting and cutting do not need to vaporize the metal completely, and the energy required is only 1/10 of that of vaporized cutting.

Laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting some materials that are not easily oxidized or active metals, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.

3. Laser oxygen cutting

The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting. It uses a laser as a preheating heat source, and an active gas such as oxygen as a cutting gas. On the one hand, the blown gas reacts with the cutting metal to cause an oxidation reaction and release a large amount of oxidation heat; on the other hand, the molten oxide and melt are blown out of the reaction zone to form an incision in the metal. Since the oxidation reaction in the cutting process generates a lot of heat, the energy required for laser oxygen cutting is only 1/2 of that of melting cutting, and the cutting speed is much faster than laser vaporization cutting and melting cutting. Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for easily oxidized metal materials such as carbon steel, titanium steel and heat-treated steel.

4. Laser scribing and controlled fracture

Laser scribing uses high-energy density lasers to scan the surface of brittle materials to heat the materials A small groove is evaporated, and then a certain pressure is applied, and the brittle material will crack along the small groove. The lasers used for laser scribing are generally Q-switched lasers and CO2 lasers.

Controlled fracture is the use of the steep temperature distribution generated when the laser groove is carved, which generates local thermal stress in the brittle material and causes the material to break along the small groove.

Compared with other thermal cutting methods, precision laser cutting is characterized by fast cutting speed and high quality. This is also the reason why precision laser cutting is more popular.

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