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The composition of the laser cutting machine is introduced in detail

by:VENTECH     2022-02-26

In order to facilitate understanding, we start from the perspective of the composition of the laser cutting machine to solve the problem of high system integration of the laser cutting machine's optics, mechanics, and electricity. Generally speaking, laser cutting machine consists of laser, (external) beam transmission, focusing system, cutting machine, control system, cooling system, gas system, ventilation and dust removal system, programming and nesting software.

1) Laser: The device that generates the laser light source is also one of the core components of the laser cutting machine. Today, fiber lasers are used in most cases, and CO2 lasers are occasionally used on demand.

2) External light path: For CO2 laser cutting machine, the external light path is used to guide the laser to the required direction and position through the refractor. In order to avoid failure of the CO2 laser beam path, all mirror surfaces should be protected by a protective cover, and a clean positive pressure protective gas should be introduced to protect the lens from contamination. Due to the pointing stability of the CO2 laser, its external optical path needs to be adjusted regularly or irregularly to meet the needs of normal production. The fiber laser cutting machine has no external optical path-the laser beam generated by the laser laser passes through the conductive fiber and directly enters the focusing head for cutting processing. It is easy to operate and maintenance-free.

3) Focus head: mainly includes cavity, focus lens base, focus lens, capacitive sensor and auxiliary gas nozzle. The principle of the CO2 laser focusing head is basically the same as that of the fiber laser focusing head, but the design structure and environmental adaptability are quite different. The internal components of the focusing head also have different characteristics, which will not be described in detail here. However, focusing lenses with different focal lengths have a great influence on the cutting speed and the quality of the cutting seams. In the sheet metal industry, a 5.0-inch focal length focus lens is usually used; for cutting plates over 16mm, a 7.5-inch focus lens is usually used.

4) Cutting machine: Composed of mechanical parts, it realizes the movement of X, Y, Z axis, and the cutting platform, which is the main body to realize the cutting function.

5) Numerical control system: control the machine tool to realize the movement of X, Y, Z axis, and control the laser output power and laser output mode. In laser cutting, various cutting processes are realized through the control function of the numerical control system.

6) Cooling system: used to cool the laser generator, external light path or focusing head. A laser is a device that converts electrical energy into light energy. For example, the photoelectric conversion rate of a CO2 gas laser is generally 12%, and the photoelectric conversion rate of a fiber laser is generally 30%, and the remaining energy is converted into heat. This part of the heat needs cooling water to take away the excess heat to keep the laser working normally. The water chiller also cools the external light path mirror and focusing lens of the machine tool to ensure stable beam transmission quality and effectively prevent the lens from deforming or cracking due to high temperature.

7) Gas system: This part is mainly composed of compressed air provided by air compressors, medium-sized gas cylinders and auxiliary gas cylinders required by the laser cutting machine. Compressed air needs to pass through a cooling and drying filter to provide dry air or make the mirror work properly. Medium-sized gas cylinders are prepared for CO2 gas lasers to supplement the gas consumption of laser power generation. The auxiliary cylinder provides coaxial gas for the laser cutting head to support combustion or discharge of slag during the cutting process.

8) Exhaust and dust removal system: extract the smoke and dust generated during the process, and filter it to make the exhaust gas discharge in line with environmental protection standards.

9) Programming and nesting software: Programming software is used to process computer graphics to form part processing programs; nesting software is used to realize the typesetting and combination of parts and graphics of various shapes on the same worksheet to achieve paper The maximum utilization rate.

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