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Fiber laser cutting machine laser is a mid-infrared laser with great development potential with fiber as the working material (gain medium). According to its emission excitation, it can be divided into rare earth doped fiber laser and fiber nonlinear effect laser. , Single crystal fiber laser, fiber arc laser, etc. Among them, rare-earth-doped fiber lasers have been very mature, such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) have been widely used in optical fiber communication systems. High fiber lasers are mainly used in military (photoelectric countermeasures, laser detection, laser communications, etc.), laser processing (laser marking, laser robots, laser microprocessing, etc.), laser medical treatment and other fields.
Optical fiber is a solid glass fiber drawn from SiO2 as the matrix material. Its light guiding principle is to use the principle of total reflection of the tube, that is, when the light passes from a dense medium with a large refractive index at an angle greater than the critical angle, When the optically thin medium with a low refractive index, total reflection occurs, and all incident light is reflected to the optically dense medium with a large refractive index. The light-refractive medium does not transmit light. Ordinary bare fiber is generally composed of a central high-refractive-index glass core (diameter 4-62.5μm), a middle low-refractive-index silica glass cladding (core diameter 125μm) and the outermost reinforced resin coating. Optical fibers can be divided into single-mode (SM) fibers and multi-mode (MM) fibers according to the mode of propagating light waves. The core diameter of a single-mode fiber is small (4~12μm in diameter), which can only propagate light in one mode, and its inter-mode dispersion is small. The core diameter of multimode fiber is relatively thick (diameter greater than 50μm), which can propagate light of multiple modes, but its inter-mode dispersion is relatively large. According to the refraction distribution, it can be divided into step index (SI) fiber and graded index (GI) fiber.
Take the rare earth doped fiber laser as an example. The fiber core doped with rare earth particles is used as the gain medium. The doped fiber is fixed between two mirrors to form a resonant cavity. The pump light enters the fiber from M1. The laser is output from M2. When the pump light passes through the optical fiber, the rare earth ions in the optical fiber absorb the pump light, and their electrons are excited to a higher excitation energy level to achieve population inversion. The inverted particles transfer from a high energy level to a ground state in the form of radiation, and output laser light.
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