A recent morning, Natanel Dukan walked into the French robot maker Aldebaran\'s office in Paris and noticed that a humanoid NAO robot from the company was sitting in a chair. Mr. Du Kan, an electrical engineer, cannot resist. He bent down and kissed the robot\'s cheek. In response, NAO tilted his head, touched his cheek and made a smack. This is certainly a very French app for a robot, but a close gesture of $16,000 Walking robots now used in academic research labs and robot football leagues also reflect a major shift. Until recently, most robots have been carefully separated from humans. They are mainly used for the factory to perform repetitive tasks that require speed, precision and strength. That generation of robots is dangerous. To protect the workers, they are kept in cages and surrounded. But the industrial era of robots is over. Robots are starting to move around the world. More and more, they began to imitate-and look like —humans. They also began to perform tasks like humans. Many new generations of robots are remote. Operating in the distance, but increasingly independent of tasks directly controlled by humans. Romeo, for example, a five Foot baran will soon introduce the Foot humanoid robot, the \"big brother\" of pisquik kissing the NAO robot \". Created with the assistance of $13. 8 million from the French government, the expensive robot was designed to take care of the elderly and help at home. To provide useful help, it has to do more than just the repetitive work that commercial robots already do in factories, hospitals and other environments. In addition, the design of the new robot is not only to replace human beings, but also to cooperate with human beings. Robots will be human partners, not the idea of standing Research is now being promoted in universities and industrial laboratories. This year, new industry standards for robotic manufacturing systems in the United States were announced, highlighting the emergence of this field. These standards set out the performance requirements that allow human workers to work directly with robots, who overturned the manufacturing guidelines of 1999, which prohibit \"continuous participation in operations \", humans are required to have close contact with robots considered unsafe by the industry. Today\'s robot designers believe that their work will be done by therapists, carers, guides, and security guards, and will eventually carry out almost any form of human labor. ( Robots that can think independently That is to say, with a high level of artificial intelligence Not yet. ) The key to this progress is the new form of robots. Their human appearance is not only satisfied with science. Fantasy novels Robot experts say they have chosen the human form for social and technological reasons. Robots operating indoors in particular must be able to navigate a world full of handles, switches, levers and doors designed for humans. Robot experts also pointed out that humans have affinity for their own shapes, which can ease the transition and make collaboration more natural. Creating humanoid robots also simplifies training and partnerships in the workplace and increases their potential in new applications such as care. It is not clear these new artificial People will be accepted by society because they ask basic questions about what humans mean. However, the rapid improvement of computer vision, processing and storage capabilities, Cost sensors, and new algorithms that allow robots to plan and move in a chaotic environment, make these new uses possible and in the process of changing the nature of the robot. Charlie Kemp, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, said: \"This is a wave that is happening in the robotics field . \". \"When you interact with people, things are different. We want the robot to be there; Here we see great opportunities for robots; There are very different requirements from the classic industrial robots. In factories around the world, companies like Boston\'s Rethink Robotics are building a new robot that creates a humanoid robot for simple factory automation tasks, and the general-purpose robot of Denmark\'s oudense, which makes dual robots The Arm system is designed for more traditional factory applications, but does not have cages. Rethinking robots recently released a video in which robot Baxter made a cup of coffee with a Keurig coffee machine. The company says the humanoid robot and the child Like hands and computers. Screen Face, trained to perform various pre-programmed coffee- Complete the task in a few hours. In Dr. Kemp\'s medical robotics lab at Georgia Tech. The walking robot, named Cody, is able to sense the power on the arm and has a base that can move gracefully and is used as a dance companion for experienced human dancers and physiotherapy patients. \"It\'s a way that robots can use for fun, interactive workouts in rehabilitation,\" Dr. Kemp said. \"We can also use it to understand the full-body physical interaction between humans and robots. At Carnegie Mellon University, Manuela M. Computer science professor Veloso has developed a series of mobile robots she calls CoBots to perform tasks such as sending mail, guiding visitors to make appointments and drinking coffee. She called it \"symbiotic autonomy\" because robots also depend on humans. For example, they can\'t operate the elevator because they don\'t have weapons, so they are programmed to wait and ask for help from humans. If they get lost, they stop, pull up the map of the building on the computer screen and interrupt a passing person and say, \"I\'m lost, can you tell me where I am? \"The robot community calls this idea cheating,\" said the doctor. \"But that\'s not the case,\" said villoso. This is the secret of true autonomy. In order to play a role in the real world, for safety reasons, the design of the robot must be completely different from that of the factory robot, which is based on \"rigid\" actuators capable of moving to precise positions at extremely fast speeds. The new robot has a \"compliant actuator\" that responds to external forces by naturally yielding. The original research in this field, now known as \"soft robots\", began in the medium term. MIT\'s 1990-year-old student, Jill Pratt, who works with Matthew Williamson, was exploring walking robots at the time, and Matthew Williamson was a graduate student at the time. He recalled that the study was not initially focused on solving the problem of human interaction, but scientists soon realized it. Pratt is now the project manager for the robotics challenge at the Defense Advanced Research Project Bureau, an upcoming competition designed to advance robotics for natural disasters and other emergencies. \"This actually started with a CNC machine tool,\" he said . \"using computer- A controlled robot that performs milling tasks. What is important for those manufacturing uses is the precise positioning of robot limbs. However, Dr. Prater focuses on developing walking robots that can move around the natural world, and in order to meet this challenge, force is more important than precision: \"Where the position of the limb is not important, but what is important is how much pressure the robot has on the world. He said: \"How much pressure the world has put on robots. \". The solution is to put something elastic between the motor and the joint, such as a spring. These are now described as series of elastic actuators and the technology to install them is now widely used as low This is a cost solution for robots that neither threaten humans nor can move more quickly in the natural world. \"In the Darpa Robotics Challenge, almost all robots used there have a range of elastic drives or other types of compliance controls,\" he said . \". \"The reason is not only because it makes motion tasks easier, it\'s easier to operate tasks, but it also makes the robot stay gentle when doing things and doesn\'t make things worse. ”Dr. Platt recalled that when researchers first realized that the series of elastic drives was the key to freeing the robot from the cage, an incident occurred. In the study of the early humanoid robot COG, in a project led by Rodney Brooks, the founder of Rethink Robotics, then M. I. T. AI Labs, who are demonstrating how robots can complete tasks such as writing with pencils and paper. However, there was a bug in the software that caused the robot\'s arms to keep banging on the table. Dr. Brooks sees this as an opportunity to demonstrate the security of the technology. He put himself between the table and the arm, and the arm began to hit him. Robot experts describe this original approach as \"passive compliance \". There are other ways today. \"Active compliance\" Using software and sensors, the speed and accuracy of more rigid robots are integrated with safe operations around humans.