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Laser cutting machine application range and cutting material introduction

by:VENTECH     2022-02-27

Laser cutting is one of the thermal cutting methods. It uses a focused high-power density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece to quickly melt, vaporize, ablate or reach the ignition point of the irradiated material. At the same time, it is blown by the high-speed airflow coaxial with the beam. In addition to the molten material, the workpiece can be cut apart.

1. Laser cutting application

Most laser cutting machines are controlled by CNC programs or made into cutting robots. As a precision processing method, laser cutting can cut almost all materials, including two-dimensional or three-dimensional cutting of thin metal plates.

In the field of automobile manufacturing, the cutting technology of space curves such as car roof windows has been widely used. German Volkswagen uses a laser with a power of 500W to cut complex-shaped body sheets and various curved parts. In the aerospace field, laser cutting technology is mainly used for cutting special aviation materials, such as titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, nickel alloys, chromium alloys, stainless steel, beryllium oxide, composite materials, plastics, ceramics, and quartz. The aerospace parts processed by laser cutting include engine flame tube, titanium alloy thin-walled casing, aircraft frame, titanium alloy skin, wing stringer, tail wall panel, helicopter main rotor, space shuttle ceramic insulation tile, etc.

Laser cutting forming technology also has a wide range of applications in the field of non-metallic materials. Not only can cut materials with high hardness and brittleness, such as silicon nitride, ceramics, quartz, etc.; it can also cut and process flexible materials, such as cloth, paper, plastic plates, rubber, etc., such as clothing cutting with lasers, which can save clothing 10 %~12%, increase the efficacy by more than 3 times.

2. Laser cutting materials

1. Structural steel

Better results will be obtained when this material is cut with oxygen. When oxygen is used as the processing gas, the cutting edge will be slightly oxidized. For plates with a thickness of 4mm, nitrogen can be used as a processing gas for high-pressure cutting. In this case, the cutting edge will not be oxidized. For plates with a thickness of more than 10mm, using a special pole plate for the laser and oiling the surface of the workpiece during processing can get better results.

2. Stainless steel

Oxygen can be used when oxidation of the cutting end surface is acceptable; if nitrogen is used to obtain a non-oxidized and burr-free edge, no further treatment is required. Coating the oil film on the surface of the board will get a better perforation effect without reducing the processing quality.

3. Aluminum

With high reflectivity and thermal conductivity, aluminum with a thickness of 6mm or less can be cut, depending on the alloy type and laser capability. When cutting with oxygen, the cutting surface is rough and hard. When using nitrogen, the cutting surface is smooth. Pure aluminum is very difficult to cut because of its high purity. Aluminum can only be cut when a 'reflection absorption' device is installed on the system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.

4. Titanium

Titanium plates are cut with argon and nitrogen as processing gases. Other parameters can refer to nickel-chromium steel.

5. Copper and brass

Both materials have high reflectivity and very good thermal conductivity. Brass with a thickness of 1mm or less can be cut with nitrogen; copper with a thickness of 2mm or less can be cut, and the processing gas must be oxygen. Copper and brass can only be cut when a 'reflection absorption' device is installed on the system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.

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