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economic aspects of welding process.
In today\'s context, companies in the field of practice really focus on the efficiency of their activities (
Find solutions to reduce welding costs and increase productivity)
Optimization of consumption (
Find a solution with the lowest cost of the product but meet the required quality standards)
Certification and launch of new products according to the huge competitive conditions in the market (Izwisia, 2002).
In order to determine the type of sufficient consumables and welding equipment, the entire welding activity must be audited (Rosenthal, 2001).
Objectives of the company (
In the neo-classical model)
The company cannot affect the price of its input or output (
The answer to the question of consumer maximization is optimal consumption bundling.
The most reasonable combination of consumption is the most happy combination of cheap goods for consumers.
For a particular production set, the following attributes may or may not be true: irrevocable, possibility of inaction, production of a single output, and minimum cost.
Normally, if the product is one of these attributes, then choose profit-
When there is a single output, consider the model of profit maximization.
At the price p, let z (w, p)
Is the factor demand function of the enterprise, and the supply function of the enterprise is q (w, p)= f(z (w, p))(1)
At a specific price vector ,(w*, p*)
Set to q * = q (w*, p*)(2)
An interesting implication of the profit maximization problem is z * = z (w*, p*)(3)
Solve the following problems :【
Mathematical expressions that cannot be reproduced in ASCII](4)s. t. :f(z)[
Greater than or equal to]q * (5)
This is, z * is the lowest price for the input package costwhen to generate q (w*, p*).
If a company maximizes its profit by using z * to produce q *, then z * is also producing an input package for q * at the lowest cost.
The fact that cost minimisation is necessary for profit maximization points to another way to solve a company problem.
First, for output at any level, q, find input packages that minimize the cost of producing output at that level at the current price level.
That is, to solve the following problem called cost reduction: min w x z (6)s. t. :f(z)[
Greater than or equal to]q (7)2.
Motivation is sometimes necessary to assume a diagnosis of the actual state of the welding activity and to determine the goals and solutions to meet these requirements.
The effective implementation of these solutions also includes their control over a certain period of time.
Although the company may not be aware of this, whenever the welder has to stop working and look for a part on the ground around him, time and effort will be wasted even if it is close to him.
Closely related to the perpetrators of this waste of energy is the bad habit of handling parts.
The evaluation methodology to help this task is very important for the final outcome of any company\'s market strategy.
Due to the many variables involved, it is very difficult and complicated to have a comprehensive and accurate analysis to correctly select the welding process in practical cases.
One important aspect is that in market strategy, quality and cost as another requirement need to be analyzed as a whole.
At first glance, the cost of welding seems to have more measurable properties.
However, they involve a large number of components such as welding execution, process selection, employee training, joint design, equipment definition/setup and even manufacturing simulation.
The determination of welding costs requires consideration of welding parameters and prices of consumables, workers, equipment, etc.
In the process of determining and controlling/reducing costs, it is important to pay close attention to the relevant components of costs.
Similar to quality, the goal of low cost depends on the specific application.
An interesting way to be inefficient in part handling is to mark a piece with a soap stone each time you pick it up.
With this approach, managers are often surprised to see how many times a part has actually been processed.
Now there is a technology that can bypass the head involved in record keeping.
Many current software packages can be adjusted according to the specific needs of a single company, providing great efficiency while eliminating room for human error.
Another way to use technology in reducing costs is to introduce automation or automation into the process.
The robot is only necessary if the number of parts that need to be welded is so large that the labor cost exceeds the cost of setting the robot solution. [
Figure 1 slightly]
Automation is ideal for small operations that simply want to improve quality and efficiency (Figure 1). 3.
Welding economy companies wishing to reduce welding costs can benefit from the following rule of thumb: labor and overhead costs account for 80% of the total cost of soft steel welding operations, although material costs account for only 20% (
Escala et al, 2006).
In other words, companies that want to save money on welding are better off focusing on adjusting the procedures for welding.
Here are a series of steps that companies can take to achieve savings in these areas (Hachicha, 2007).
Companies can also find inefficient problems in other ways.
These include checking variables such as Weld diameter, wire feeding speed, voltage, driving speed, gas type, and transmission mode, where there are only a few variables.
Another area that needs attention is joint preparation.
Double should be used for welders
Tilt as much as possible, not singlebevel.
This simple program adjustment can save a lot of unused welding metal (Rosenthal, 2001).
In order to eliminate unnecessary welding requirements, it is also best for the company to change the design of the welded parts.
Due to obvious reasons, time, energy and materials will be wasted outside the weld.
Companies can also ultimately reduce production costs by opening their eyes to products that can be welded instead of cast.
In many cases, it is more effective for a part than casting the entire part in an expensive alloy or foreign metal (
Silva, etc. , 2000).
The authors propose the following rules to consider: * simple details are applied to the welding attachment.
* Avoid excessive weld volume. e.
Do not specify too much weld size.
* If the size is not too large, the corner Weld used takes precedence over the groove weld.
* Keep in mind that longer, smaller angular welds are cheaper than larger-sized angular welds.
* In the ready butt joint, when the force on the joint allows, use a partial penetration weld instead of a full penetration weld.
* Avoid preparing expensive plate edge preparations for grooves, unless the manufacturer is equipped with equipment for these preparations.
* Arrange as much welding as possible in the store and as little welding as possible on site.
* Use the start welding position.
* Avoid converting components or assemblies to welds.
* Make sure the electrode is accessible enough for all welds.
* As a designer, there is no very detailed description of the way the welding is done;
The manufacturer is able to better determine the most economical joint preparation and welding procedures.
* For bending or folding plates of corner joints, preferred for welding.
* Pre-qualified joints and welding procedures were used to avoid passing tests.
* Excessive strict inspection is not required.
First, the company needs to pay attention to shipping consumables and accessories to the welding site.
Simply store all the items needed for the welding process in the area where the welder can directly contact, and improve the operation efficiency.
With these items that can include welding gas, flux and wires, it is easy to reduce the time that welders move from the welding station, thus saving labor costs.
By the way, it is also a good idea to switch to a larger line axis to reduce the frequency of the conversion time, which will also increase the cost.
Another way to reduce costs is to prevent excessive welding (
Silvaet al, 2000).
Usually, the weld welded by the welder is slightly larger than the weld welded.
Whether they are out of ignorance about the length of the weld cut or because they are trying to make sure enough weld metal is in place, the end result is that valuable consumer goods are not only wasted, the company also pays for wasted consumer goods, however, overwelded materials are more likely to be bent or twisted due to the additional heat applied during welding. 4.
Conclusion This paper studies the welding process from the perspective of manufacturing cost, because the cost optimization of welding and related processes (
Thermal spraying, cutting, brazing, welding, etc)
Represents the attention of all companies.
It therefore assumes a deep, careful analysis of all activities and preparations
The intermediate stages of welding and control are (Hachicha et al. , 2007)
This article emphasizes this.
In conclusion, it aims to achieve a clear goal: cost calculation, audit and analysis in all aspects of the welding and cutting processes used, performance and productivity of welding and related processes. 5.
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Economic welding in a healthy way
Welding conference in Eastern Europe, ISIM Timisoara, IIW/IIS, Romania, pg. 244-251, ISSN 8359-40-
6. Timisoara, May 2006, Sudura Press, Timisoara Hachicha, W. ; Masmoudi, F. & Bouaziz, Z. (2007). A newfeature-
Concepts applied in the welding portfolio cost estimation model, advantages in the Journal of Production Engineering and Management, Volume 142, No2, (January, 2007)pg. 149-162, ISSN 1854-
6250 Izvercian, M. (2002).
Solness Press, ISBN 973-8472-19-
9. Rosenthal, J. W. (2001).
Ten steps to reduce welding costs, welding Magazine, Volume 179, (July 2001)pg. 32, ISSN 0043-2296 Silva, C. R. ; Ferrares, V. A. & Scotti, A. (2000).
Quality and Cost methods for welding process selection, Journal of Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences, Volume 122, no 3, (March, 2000), ISSN0100-7386 Vartolomei-M, M. (2009).
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