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What are the types of insulation materials

What are the types of insulation materials


In buildings, materials used to control the outflow of indoor heat are traditionally called thermal insulation materials, and materials that prevent outdoor heat from entering the room are called thermal insulation materials. Thermal insulation and thermal insulation materials are collectively referred to as thermal insulation materials. So, what are the types of insulation materials? What are the types of insulation materials? Analysis of types of insulation materials

Commonly used thermal insulation materials can be divided into two categories: organic and inorganic according to their composition. According to its shape, it can be divided into fibrous, porous, microporous, bubble, granular, layered, etc., and some of the more common inorganic fibrous insulation materials are briefly introduced below.

1. Mineral wool, rock wool and their products

Mineral wool is a cotton-like thermal insulation material made of industrial waste slag as the main raw material, melted, and made by blowing or centrifugal method: Rock wool is mineral wool made from natural rocks. Commonly used rocks such as basalt and slag Greenstone, amphibolite, etc.

Features of mineral wool: Mineral wool and its products are a kind of high-quality thermal insulation material with a history of more than 100 years of production and application. Its light weight, heat preservation, heat insulation, sound absorption, good chemical stability, non-combustibility, corrosion resistance, abundant raw material sources and low cost.

The main purpose of mineral wool: its products are mainly used to dry the walls, roofs, ceilings, etc. of the building for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It can also be made into waterproof felt and pipe casings.

2. Glass wool and products

Glass wool is a kind of fibrous material made by melting glass raw material or broken glass. It includes short cotton and superfine cotton.

Features of glass wool: It can maintain good thermal insulation performance at high and low temperatures; it has good elastic recovery; it has good sound absorption performance and has good sound absorption effects on various sound waves and noises; good chemical stability, no aging phenomenon for a long time The performance is unchanged, and the thickness, density and shape of the product can be processed according to user requirements.

Main use: Short cotton is mainly made into glass wool felt and roll felt, used for heat insulation and sound insulation of buildings, heat insulation and sound insulation of ventilation and air-conditioning equipment, etc. Superfine cotton is mainly made of glass wool board and glass wool pipe sleeve. It is used for heat preservation and sound insulation of large recording studios, cold storages, warehouses, ships, aviation, tunnels and house construction projects. It can also be used for heating, water supply, power and other equipment Insulation of pipes.

3. Aluminum silicate cotton and its products

Aluminum silicate cotton is aluminum silicate fiber with a diameter of 3~5μm, also known as refractory fiber. It is made of high-quality pyro-gemstone, high-purity alumina, silica, zircon sand, etc. as raw materials. Select the appropriate process to deal with it through resistance Furnace melt spraying or spinning, the inorganic material made by polymerizing and fiberizing different dispersing materials with the same chemical composition and structure. It is a new type of high-quality thermal insulation material recognized at home and abroad.

Features: light weight, high temperature resistance, low heat capacity, low thermal conductivity, excellent thermal stability, excellent tensile strength and excellent chemical stability.

Main application: Widely used in high-temperature insulation sealing of industrial kilns in electric power, petroleum, metallurgy, building materials, machinery, chemicals, ceramics and other industrial sectors, as well as as filtering and sound-absorbing materials.

4. Asbestos and its products

Asbestos, also known as "asbestos", is a commercial term that refers to silicate mineral products with high tensile strength, high flexibility, resistance to chemical and thermal erosion, electrical insulation, and spinnability. It is the general term for natural fibrous silicate minerals.

Features: It has a high degree of fire resistance, electrical insulation and heat insulation. It is an important fireproof, insulation and heat preservation material.

Main uses: Mainly used for dry mechanical transmission, braking, heat preservation, fire prevention, heat insulation, anti-corrosion, sound insulation, insulation, etc. The more important ones are the manufacturing sectors of automobiles, chemicals, electrical equipment, and construction.

5. Inorganic microporous materials

(1) Diatomaceous earth: Diatomaceous earth is composed of amorphous SIO2, and contains a small amount of fe2o3, CaO, MgO, al2o3; and organic impurities.

Features: Diatomite is usually light yellow or light gray, soft, porous and light, and its porosity is 50% to 80%, so it has good thermal insulation properties. The chemical composition of diatomaceous earth is water-containing amorphous SIO2, and its maximum use temperature can reach 900°C.

Main application: It is commonly used in industry as insulation materials, filter materials, fillers, abrasive materials, raw materials for water glass, decolorizers and catalyst carriers, etc.

(2) Calcium silicate and its products: Calcium silicate insulation material is made of 65% silica (quartz sand powder, diatomaceous earth, etc.), 35% free calcium oxide (also useful slaked lime, calcium carbide slag, etc.) and 5% reinforced Fiber (such as asbestos, glass fiber, etc.) is a new type of thermal insulation material made by mixing, heating, gelling, forming, autoclave hardening, drying and other processes as the main raw material.

Features: low apparent density, high flexural strength, low thermal conductivity, high use temperature, good water resistance, strong fire resistance, non-corrosive, durable, and its products are easy to process and easy to install.

Main applications: Widely used as heat preservation and heat insulation materials for heat pipes, equipment and kilns in dry metallurgy, electric power, chemical and other industries, fireproof covering materials for interior and exterior walls and flat roofs of buildings, and warehouse walls and aisles of various ships Fire-proof and heat-insulating materials.

6. Inorganic bubble-like thermal insulation material

(1) Expanded perlite and its products.

Expanded perlite is obtained by calcining natural perlite. It is white or off-white particles in the shape of honeycomb foam. It is a high-efficiency heat-insulating material.

Features: low density, low thermal conductivity, stable chemical properties. Wide operating temperature range, low moisture absorption capacity, non-toxic, odorless, non-corrosive, non-combustible, sound-absorbing and convenient for construction.

Main use: Expanded perlite bulk materials in construction projects are mainly used as filling materials, cast-in-place cement perlite insulation, thermal insulation, stucco materials and refractory concrete. Its products are widely used in lower temperature heat pipes, heat equipment and Other industrial piping equipment and thermal insulation of industrial buildings, as well as thermal insulation, heat insulation, and sound absorption of industrial and civil building maintenance structures.

(2) Aerated concrete.

Aerated concrete is a lightweight and hollow building material. It uses cement, lime, slag, fly ash, sand, gas generating materials, etc. as raw materials, after grinding, batching, pouring, cutting, autoclave curing and It is made by milling and other processes. It is called aerated concrete because it contains a large number of uniform and small pores inside the product after it is aerated.

Features: light weight (70%-80% porosity, bulk density generally 400~700kg/m⊃3; equivalent to 1/3 of solid clay bricks, 1/5 of ordinary concrete, good thermal insulation performance, good fire resistance Performance, does not emit harmful gases, has processability, good sound absorption performance, wide sources of raw materials, high production efficiency, and low production energy consumption.

Main use: Mainly used for lightweight bricks, lightweight walls, sound insulation bricks, sound insulation bricks, heat insulation bricks and energy-saving bricks in construction projects.


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