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With the continuous advancement of industry, academia and research, and continuous support of policies, a large number of laser cutting machine companies have emerged, and there is a tendency for 'a hundred flowers to contend'.
The laser cutting machine uses a focused high-power density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece, so that the irradiated material is quickly melted, vaporized, ablated or reached the ignition point, and at the same time, with the help of the beam The coaxial high-speed airflow blows away the molten material, so as to realize the cutting of the workpiece. Laser cutting is one of the thermal cutting methods.
Compared with other thermal cutting methods, the laser cutting machine is generally characterized by fast cutting speed and high quality. Specifically, it can be summarized as follows:
1. Good cutting quality: due to the small laser spot, high energy density, and fast cutting speed, laser cutting can achieve better cutting quality.
①The laser cutting incision is narrow, the two sides of the incision are parallel and perpendicular to the surface, and the dimensional accuracy of the cut parts can reach ±0.05mm.
②The cutting surface is smooth and beautiful, and the surface roughness is only tens of microns. Even laser cutting can be used as the last process without mechanical processing, and the parts can be used directly.
③After the material is laser cut, the width of the heat-affected zone is very small, and the performance of the material near the slit is almost unaffected, and the workpiece has small deformation, high cutting accuracy, and good geometry of the slit. The cross-sectional shape of the slit presents a relatively regular rectangle. The comparison of laser cutting, oxyacetylene cutting and plasma cutting methods is shown in Table 1. The cutting material is a 6.2mm thick low carbon steel plate.
2. High cutting efficiency: Due to the transmission characteristics of the laser, the laser cutting machine is generally equipped with multiple CNC workbenches, and the entire cutting process can be fully controlled. During operation, it is only necessary to change the numerical control program to apply the cutting of parts of different shapes, which can be used for two-dimensional cutting and three-dimensional cutting.
Fast cutting speed: use a laser with a power of 1200W to cut 2mm thick low-carbon steel plates, and the cutting speed can reach 15000px/min; cut 5mm thick polypropylene resin plates, and cut The speed can reach 30000px/min. The material does not need to be clamped during laser cutting, which not only saves tooling and fixtures, but also saves auxiliary time for loading and unloading.
3. There are many types of cutting materials: Compared with oxyacetylene cutting and plasma cutting, there are many types of laser cutting materials, including metal, non-metal, metal-based and non-metal-based Composite materials, leather, wood and fiber, etc. However, for different materials, due to their own thermophysical properties and different absorption rates for lasers, they exhibit different laser cutting adaptability.
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